ASCII Character ςGreek small letter final sigma
Sigma (/ˈsɪɡmə/; uppercase Σ, lowercase σ, lowercase in word-final position ς; Greek: σίγμα) is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals, it has a value of 200. In general mathematics, uppercase Σ is used as an operator for summation. When used at the end of a letter-case word (one that does not use all caps), the final form (ς) is used. In Ὀδυσσεύς (Odysseus), for example, the two lowercase sigmas (σ) in the center of the name are distinct from the word-final sigma (ς) at the end. The Latin letter S derives from sigma while the Cyrillic letter Es derives from a lunate form of this letter. The shape (Σς) and alphabetic position of sigma is derived from the Phoenician letter 𐤔 (shin). The uppercase form of sigma (Σ) was re-borrowed into the Latin alphabet — more precisely, the International African Alphabet — to serve as the uppercase of modern esh (lowercase: ʃ).